What Is Financial Ratio Analysis?

Financial Ratio Analysis

A measure of how many times operating income can cover total debts. The debt ratio is a complementary figure for the equity ratio, which is the percentage of assets funded by owners. Ratios generally are not useful unless they are benchmarked against something else, like past performance or another company. Thus, the ratios of firms in different industries, which face different risks, capital requirements, and competition are usually hard to compare. Again, this is a ratio that must be compared to others in your industry to be meaningful. In general, a low ratio may indicate an inefficient use of working capital; that is, you could be doing more with your resources, such as investing in equipment.

Creditors and company managers also use ratio analysis as a form of trend analysis. For example, they may examine trends in liquidity or profitability over time.

Financial Ratio Analysis

It measures how efficiently the company uses its assets to generate revenues. The number of times a company can cover interest payments using pretax income. If the times interest earned is 3, it means that the company’s pretax income can pay fixed interest charges three more times. The amount of cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities available to pay $1 of current liabilities. Operational Ratiosuse turnover measures to show how efficient a company is in its operations and use of its assets. Financial ratios are used in Flash Reports to measure and improve the financial performance of a company on a weekly basis. The debt-to-worth ratio is a measure of how dependent a company is on debt financing as compared to owner’s equity.


Very well explained .Can you share the excel template. I wrote down something a couple days ago and it seems like my comment hasn’t been through so i was asking if you were ok to send me the templates you have regarding the above mentioned subject.

  • Financial RisksFinancial risk refers to the risk of losing funds and assets with the possibility of not being able to pay off the debt taken from creditors, banks and financial institutions.
  • Such costs can be determined by identifying the expenditure on cost objects.
  • Negative Cash FlowsNegative cash flow refers to the situation when cash spending of the company is more than cash generation in a particular period under consideration.
  • In simpler words, the valuation ratio compares the cost of security with the perks of owning the stock.

Ratios drawn from a business’s current assets and current liabilities on the balance sheet that provide insight on its ability to meet short-term debt obligations. Ratios AnalysisRatio analysis is the quantitative interpretation of the company’s financial performance. It provides valuable information about the organization’s profitability, solvency, operational efficiency and liquidity positions as represented by the financial statements. The financial metric “EBITDA” was coined by American billionaire and businessman John C. Malone in the early 1970s. EBITDA depicts true operating profitability since it’s income before non-operating expenses. EBITDA coverage can provide a more accurate picture of servicing debts than the debt coverage ratio. Return on AssetsThe return on assets ratio measures the relationship between profits your company generated and assets that were used to generate those profits.

Ratio Analysis

Benchmarking using ratio analysis can be useful to various audiences; for example, investors and managers interested in incorporate quantitative comparisons of a company to peers. Other disadvantages of this type of analysis is that if used alone it can present an overly simplistic view of the company by distilling a great deal of information into a single number or series of numbers.

Financial Ratio Analysis

The quick ratio is similar to the current ratio but is the current assets minus inventory divided by current liabilities. The quick ratio is primarily used to analyze a firm that relies heavily on selling of inventory to pay current liabilities. Measure risk in the context of risk of default and the capacity of the firm to meet its obligations at a certain period of time. The financial statements measure risks by means of disclosures like contingent liabilities. Contingent liabilities refer to potential liabilities which firm might incur under certain contingencies.

Financial Ratio Analysis

Higher interest coverage ratios imply a greater ability of the firm to payoff its interests. Higher sensitivity could be because of higher operating leverage and higher financial leverage , 3-10 years of data should be taken to calculate the total leverage. In Colgate’s case, the total assets increased significantly to $15.03 billion in 2019 and $15.92 billion in 2020. We also note that the overall Net sales have increased by 5% in 2020. The net effect of the two has resulted in a decrease in the decline in Return on Total Assets.

  • It reflects how much they would pay to receive $1 of earnings.
  • Comprised of retained earnings from operations and contributions from donors.
  • One of the crucial benefits of trend analysis for managers and analysts is the ability to make better forecasts.
  • Inventory RatioInventory ratio or inventory turnover ratio is an activity ratio that depicts the frequency of replacing the stocks sold by the company in a certain period.
  • Accounting ratios are widely used by bank managers and financial analysts as performance benchmarks, mainly because of their simple calculation method.
  • Treasury StockTreasury Stock is a stock repurchased by the issuance Company from its current shareholders that remains non-retired.

A ratio takes one number and divides it into another number to determine a decimal that can later be converted to a percentage, if desired. Debt was the method chosen, in particular a credit line with the company’s bank. The Beavys anticipated that the need at any point would be considerably less than $280,000. With significant assets to collateralize Financial Ratio Analysis the total amount, they could, if they chose to, convert the LOC to a term loan at any time. Ratio analysis is the technique usually applied to financial statements to allow for comparison of different companies. The reciprocal of equity ratio is known as equity multiplier, which is equal to total assets divided by total equity.

Efficiency Ratios

The turnover ratios measure the efficiency or speed with which firms turns accounts receivables into cash or inventory to sales. These ratios measure how well a firm is using their current assets and cash along with the overall short-term financial health of a company. It is important to know whether a firm is liquid, in the short-term, so that one can assess the possibility of problems in the future. The primary liquidity ratio is the Current Ratio, which is the firm’s current assets divided by its current liabilities. In general, the current ratio tell how well a firm can cover its current liabilities with its current assets.

The historical ratios of a company that has undergone a merger or had a substantive change in its technology or market position will say little about the prospects for this company. In isolation, a financial ratio is a useless piece of information – context is everything. In general, the higher a cost of sales to inventory ratio, the better. A high ratio shows that inventory is turning over quickly and that little unused inventory is being stored. Current ratio analysis is also a very helpful way for you to evaluate how your company uses its cash. Clearly, higher the debt Vishal seeks to finance his asset, higher is the RoE. A high RoE is great, but certainly not at the cost of high debt.

How To Interpret Financial Ratios

Financial ratios help interpret the results and compare with previous years and other companies in the same industry. There are six categories of financial ratios that business managers normally use in their analysis. Within these six categories are 15 financial ratios that help a business manager and outside investors analyze the financial health of the firm. Financial ratios are only valuable if there is a basis of comparison for them. Each ratio should be compared to past time periods of data for the business. They can also be compared to data for other companies in the industry. Long term liquidity or gearing is concerned with the financial structure of the company.

A fill-in-the-blanks calculator for several income and sales ratios. This is a ratio that you will certainly want to compare with other firms in your industry. Remember that the ratios you will be calculating are intended simply to show broad trends and thus to help https://www.bookstime.com/ you with your decision-making. They need only be accurate enough to be useful to you. Don’t get bogged down calculating ratios to more than one or two decimal places. Any change that is measured in hundredths of a percent will almost certainly have no meaning.


If you’re looking to assess the health of your company and identify opportunities for improvement, take a look at your company financial ratios. These can be useful indicators of how well your company is performing in a number of financial areas. Financial ratios allow for comparisons and, therefore, are intertwined with the process of benchmarking, comparing one’s business to that of others or of the same company at a different point in time.

Using Ratios To Determine If A Stock Is Overvalued Or Undervalued

Changes from year to year are attributable to two major categories increases in Unrestricted Net Assets and changes in Restricted Net Assets . This category evaluates the ability of a hospital to generate a surplus.

Here I have taken Colgate Case Study and calculated Ratios in excel from scratch. You should do this every month to watch for important changes in your ratios. If you want professional feedback, you can consider hiring a certified public accountant or chief financial officer consultant to interpret the figures for you. The length of time it takes the company to pay its obligations to suppliers.

Introduction To Financial Ratios

A high ratio can be dangerous, since a drop in sales which causes a serious cash shortage could leave your company vulnerable to creditors. Even small changes of 1% or 2% in the gross profit margin can affect a business severely.

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